Experiments on Organic Chemistry_3rd Year

Course Code: B32014H-01                                      

Course Name: Experiments on Organic Chemistry

Credits: 1.0

Pre-requisite: Organic Chemistry

Course Description

This course is a compulsory major course for undergraduates of chemistry and related majors, also can either be required or an elective course for undergraduates whose major is or related to material science and engineering, chemical engineering and technology, or life science.

Chemistry is the subject about creation of material; however, the synthesis and separation of organic chemistry experiment is the basic process and means to create the primary organic material, and the use of various analytical apparatuses is the necessary means to judge the structure and properties of the new materials. Through the study of this course, it is the hope that students can achieve the following objectives and requirements:

  1. Deepening the understanding of the basic theoretical knowledge of organic chemistry, of the basic properties and the safety of organic compounds and the organic reactions and their mechanism; 
  2. Training students to master the basic operating skills of organic chemistry experiments and improve their practical ability and safety awareness;
  3. Understanding the basic principle and preliminary application of related apparatuses and equipment;
  4. Training students' ability relating to experimental design, synthesis, purification, structure characterization and judgment, improving the comprehensive ability of analyzing and solving problems, and laying a good foundation for the later study of professional courses and the later development of scientific research;
  5. Training students' scientific attitude of seeking truth from facts, rigorous and detailed observation, training their good laboratory work habits. Guiding students to put forward scientific exploration problems, stimulating students' scientific interest and innovative consciousness.

Prior to the experiment, students should be aware of the properties of related organic compounds, should learn to use the related manuals, literature data and information network to consult the physical and chemical constants of organic compounds.

Students should be aware of the properties of related organic compounds,before experiment, should prepare carefully and write the preview report; during the experiment, should carefully observe the experimental phenomenon, carefully record, analyze and collate data; after experiment, should write the experimental report according to the requirements. Teacher examines students from preparation, instrument and equipment, basic operation, product quality and quantity, safety, hygiene, scientific attitude, cooperation spirit, experimental report etc, and use these as a basis for students' scores.

Through the study of this course, improving students' learning interest for the basic knowledge of organic chemistry and improving their science interest for organic chemistry experiment and research, leading students to the field of organic chemistry, improving students' comprehensive quality of solving practical problems in the organic chemistry field, laying foundation for the cultivation of professional talents of organic chemistry.

Topics and Schedule

First part: the introduction and training of main apparatuses (8hrs)

The introduction: general knowledge of organic chemistry experiments and introduction of laboratory safety techniques (2hrs)

Objectives and requirements: learning the general knowledge of organic chemistry experiments, including safety and hygiene.Students should prepare beforeexperiment, make record of the experiment, and write experimental report correctly. Introduction of main laboratory apparatuses and their demonstration training (6hrs) (introducing the general principles of apparatuses operation,classified training the use of apparatuses)

Objectives and requirements: understanding the basic principles of different apparatuses, after basic training, students can choose to use different apparatuses according to the needs in the later specific experiment, testing the various properties of different types of organic compounds, preliminary learning to use different spectral data to infer the structure of organic compounds and judge the purity and quality of related substances.

The second part: basic operating skills (8hrs)

Mastering: distillation, recrystallization, filtration, the determination of boiling point and melting point.

Experiment 1   Recrystallization for purification and determination of melting point of solid samples (4hrs)

Objectives and requirements: learning the principle and method of the solid organic compounds purification by recrystallization; mastering basic operations such as folding filter paper, sucking filtration,hot filtration etc.Understanding the significance of the melting point determination, mastering the principle and method of the melting point determination.

Experimental apparatuses and equipment: oven, circulating water pump, digital display electric heating sleeve and micro melting point apparatus.

Experiment 2   Reduced pressure distillation (4hrs)

Objectives and requirements:understanding of the relationship between boiling point and vacuum degree, mastering the principles and methods of reduced pressure distillation.

Experimental apparatuses and equipment:vacuum pump, vacuum pressure gauge, thermometer, distilled glassapparatus set.

The third part: separation and synthesis experiment (24hrs)

Separation experiment is an important part of organic chemistry experiment, it is the most important basis of organic synthesis. It can train students’ basic skills of separation and purification compounds. Only with very skilled compound separation skills can they guarantee the synthetic compounds are pure compounds, then provide material guarantee for the study of structure and properties of organic compounds.

The synthetic experiment is the main part of the organic chemistry experiment. While selecting synthetic experiment, considering the basic operation should be trained comprehensively and repeated many times, and students should do a number of different types of synthetic reaction experiments; the choice of each experiment should have a certain representation and purposiveness, and select some comprehensive synthetic experiments and design experiments.Students analyze experimental resultsto improve their ability of comprehensive training, analyzing and problem solving,and combined with the theoretical knowledge of reference would lay a foundation for students to design and implement the synthesis of the target compounds by themselves in the future.

Experiment 3   Principle and method of thin layer chromatography and separation and extraction of pigment (8hrs)

Objectives and requirements: Understanding the principles of thin layer chromatography for the separation of organic compounds, mastering the preparation methods of thin layer chromatography and the basic skills of thin layer   chromatography for the separation of organic compounds. Through the extraction and separation of green plant pigment,understanding the basic idea of the separation, extraction, purification methods of natural substances and the specific process of the experimental implementation, through the separation operation by thin layer chromatography and column chromatography,deepening the understanding of the identification principle of organic compounds chromatographic separation.

Experimental apparatuses and equipment:ultraviolet fluorescent lamp, circulating water pump, rotary evaporator, vacuum drying oven, ultraviolet spectrum instrument (UV).

Experiment 4   Trans 1,2-stilbene (8hrs)

Objectives and requirements: learning preparation of tans 1,2-stilbene by Wittig reaction.

Experimental instruments and equipment: magnetic heating agitator, oil bath, circulating water pump, oven, rotary evaporator, ultraviolet fluorescent lamp, fluorescence spectrometer (FL), or ultraviolet absorption spectrometer (UV), or nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer.

Experiment 5   Polystyrene emulsion polymerization (8hrs)

Objectives and requirements: learning the basic principles of emulsion polymerization,mastering the principles and methods of molecular weight determination by gel permeation chromatography.

Experimental instruments and equipment: magnetic heating agitator, thermostatic apparatus, oil bath, nitrogen unit, circulating water pump, vacuum drying oven, gel permeation chromatograph (GPC).


Wang Qinglian (Lanzhou University) et al, Experiments on Organic Chemistry (3th Edition), Higher Education Press, 2010 (2012 reprint)


[1]    Institute of organic chemistry, College of chemistry, Peking University, Experiments on Organic Chemistry (2th Edition), Peking University Press, 2002 (or 3th Edition)

[2]    Li Zhaolong,Yin Jinxiang, Experiments on Organic Chemistry, Tsinghua University Press, 2001

[3]    Tietze, L. F.; Eicher, T.; Diederichsen, U.; Speicher, A.; Reactions and Syntheses in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory, Wiley (2007)

[4]    B.S.Furniss et al., Vogel’s Textbook of Practical Organic Chemistry, 5th ed(1989).,Pearson Edu.Limited. vol1, vol2. ISBN: 7-5062-6584-2/O, 7-5062- 6585-0/O.2004, World book publishing company, Beijing branch published

[5]    W.L.F.Armarego and D.D. Perrin, Ed.Butterworth-Heinemann, Shi Yu translation, Purification of Laboratory Chemicals(4th Edition), Chemical Industry Press

[6]    L.F.Tietze, Th.Eicher, Zhang Jinqi translation, Fine Organic Synthesis- Reaction and Synthesis in the Practice of Organic Chemistry, Nanjing University Press,1990

[7]    Xia Nnngyu, Handbook of Chemistry Laboratory, Chemical Industry Press (2th Edition),  2008

[8]    Cheng Nenglin, Solvent Handbook, Chemical Industry Press (4th Edition),  2008

Course Website

http://www.orgsyn.org/ (install chemdraw plug in)

http://www.organic-chemistry.org/namedreactions/ (name reaction)