Physical Chemistry I

Course Code: B32007Y-01

Course Name: Physical Chemistry I

Credits: 2.0

Pre-requisite: Chemical principle

Course Description:

"Physical Chemistry" is the subject which studies the principles, rules and methods of the chemical behavior of the material system. It is the theoretical basis of chemistry and other subjects that study the material change at the molecular level. Therefore, physical chemistry is one of the important core courses of the chemistry department. Physical chemistry is a science that explores the basic principles of chemical change from the connection between physical phenomenon and chemical phenomenon, and it mainly uses physical methods in experiments.

As a branch of chemistry, the main task of physical chemistry is to explore and solve scientific problems in the following aspects:

  1. the direction and the limit of chemical change
  2. the rate and the basic problems of chemical reaction
  3. the relationship between material structure and properties

According to the current curriculum in our country, the basic physical chemistry mainly solves the former two scientific problems, the latter is solved by structural chemistry and quantum chemistry.

Physical ChemistryI mainly teaches the basis and application of chemical thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics.The purpose of teaching is letting students understand the thinking method, connotation and extension, characteristics and application of physical chemistry etc, and researching the equilibrium state information, the direction and limit of the material change with the method of thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics. This provides the necessary foundation for other related courses.

In the teaching process, this course will introduce the source of physical chemistry and the knowledge of related disciplines (especially the knowledge of Theoretical Physics).Through the introduction and studying of the professional knowledge of this course, students should understand the cross-direction theoretical basis and their interrelation of physical chemistry, increasing the interest of students in various disciplines that they have mastered or are about to learn, promoting students to consciously associate the theory, knowledge and technology of various disciplines rather than isolate them. This course focuses on the basic theory, basic concepts and classical methods in physical chemistry, to help students develop a rigorous thinking and style and build a strict concept of physical chemistry. In addition, this course will teach the extension of physical chemistry, appropriately teach some knowledge and progress about the physical chemistry research, especially the leading edge, latest developments and achievements of the physical chemistry research, broadening the horizons of students, making students master the methods and ideas to analyze and solve problems in physical chemistry, and lay a solid foundation for further study.

The main content of Physical ChemistryI includes: Gas, the first law of thermodynamics, the second law of thermodynamics, the thermodynamics of multicomponent systems and its application in solution, phase equilibria, chemical equilibrium, and the fundamentals of statistical thermodynamics.

Topics and schedule:

This course will teach the basic principles and knowledge of physical chemistry firstly, then teach the relevant application of physical chemistry and statistical thermodynamics. The basic contents of each part are as follows:

Chapter 0   Introduction

  1. The establishment and development of physical chemistry
  2. The purpose and content of physical chemistry
  3. The research methods of physical chemistry
  4. The study methods of physical chemistry course

Chapter 1   Gas

  1. Kinetic theory of gases
  2. Molar gas constant (R)
  3. The state diagram of ideal gas
  4. Rate distribution of molecular motion
  5. Distribution of molecular flat energy
  6. Distribution of gas molecules in the gravity field
  7. Molecular collision frequency and mean free path
  8. Actual gas
  9. Transition between gas and liquid
  10. Compression factor diagram
  11. Interaction force between molecules

Chapter 2  The First Law of Thermodynamics

  1.    Introduction to thermodynamics;Introduction to thermodynamics
  2.    Thermal equilibrium and the law of thermodynamics -- the concept of temperature
  3.    Some basic concepts of thermodynamics
  4.    The first law of thermodynamics
  5.    Quasi-static process and reversible process
  6.    Enthalpy
  7.    Heat capacity
  8.    The application of the first law of thermodynamics to the ideal gas
  9.    Carnot cycle
  10. Joule-Thomson effect
  11. Thermo chemical
  12. Hess’ law
  13. Several thermal effects
  14. Relationship between reaction enthalpy and temperature: Kirchhoff's law
  15. Adiabatic reaction -- non isothermal reaction
  16. The micro explanation of the first law of thermodynamics
  17. The concept of temperature is derived from the first law of thermodynamics
  18. The description of J (joule) as an energy unit

Chapter 3   The Second Law of Thermodynamics

  1.    Common features of spontaneous change
  2.    The second law of thermodynamics
  3.    Carnot theorem
  4.    Entropy concept
  5.    Clausius inequality and the principle of entropy increase
  6.    Basic equation of thermodynamics and T-S diagram
  7.    Calculation of entropy change
  8.    Entropy and energy return
  9.    The essence of the second law of thermodynamics and the statistical significance of entropy
  10. Helmholtz and Gibbs free energy
  11. Change direction and equilibrium condition
  12. Delta (G) calculation example
  13. Relations between several thermodynamic functions
  14. The third law of thermodynamics and the prescribed entropy
  15. The principle of absolute zero cannot be reached
  16. Brief introduction to thermodynamics of irreversible processes
  17. The information entropy of

Chapter 4   Thermodynamics of Multicomponent Systems and Its Application in Solution

  1.    Introduction
  2.    Composition representation of multicomponent systems
  3.    Partial molar quantity
  4.    Chemical potential
  5.    Chemical potential of each component in a gas mixture
  6.    Two laws of experience in dilute solutions
  7.    Ideal liquid mixture
  8.    Chemical potential of any component in an ideal dilute solution
  9.    The colligative property of dilute solutions
  10. Duhem-Margule formula
  11. Activity and activity factor
  12. Infiltration factor and excess function
  13. Distribution law -- the distribution of solute in the two immiscible liquid phase
  14. The microscopic description of the ideal liquid mixture and the ideal dilute solution
  15. Absolute activity

Chapter 5   Phase Equilibria

  1.    Introduction
  2.    General conditions for equilibrium of multiphase systems
  3.    Phase rule
  4.    Phase equilibrium of one component system
  5.    Phase diagram of two component systems and its application
  6.    Phase diagram of three component systems and its application
  7.    Second order phase transition
  8.    Phase diagram of iron-carbon system

Chapter 6   Chemical Equilibrium

  1.    The equilibrium condition of chemical reaction -- the affinity of reaction progress and chemical reaction
  2.    Equilibrium constant and isothermal equation of chemical reaction
  3.    Expression of equilibrium constant
  4.    Multi-phase chemical equilibrium
  5.    Standard Gibbs free energy of molar formation
  6.    Effects of temperature, pressure and inert gas on chemical equilibrium
  7.    Simultaneous chemical equilibrium
  8.    Coupling reaction
  9.    Approximate calculation
  10. Introduction of biological energy

Chapter 7   The Basis of Statistical Thermodynamics

  1.    Introduction
  2.    Boltzmann statistics
  3.    Bose-Einstein statistics and Fermi-Dirac statistics
  4.    Partition function
  5.    The method of calculating the partition function and its contribution to the thermodynamic function
  6.    The heat capacity of the crystal
  7.    The full partition function of molecular
  8.    The calculation of  ΔrGmθ and the equilibrium constants of the reaction with partition function


[1] Fu Xiancai et al, Physical Chemistry(5th Edition),Higher Education Press,2005(, and Learning Guide)

[2] Han Degang, Gao Zhidi, Gao Panliang et al, Physical Chemistry (2th Edition), Higher Education Press, 2009


[1]    Atkins, Peter; de Paula, Julio, Atkins Physical Chemistry(7th Edition), Oxford University Press, 2014/3/20

[2]    Zhu Wentao et al, Physical Chemistry, Tsinghua University Press, 1995

[3]    Yin Yongjia et al,Briefer Course of Physical Chemistry(4h Edition), Higher Education Press, 2007