Fundamental of Materials science I

Course Code: B52002Y

Course Name: FundamentalofMaterialsscienceI

Credits: 3.0

Level: Undergraduate

Pre-requisite: College Physics, Physical Chemistry, General Chemistry, Chemical Thermodynamics, Advanced Mathematics

Lecture Time: 60 hours


Course Description

This is an important basic theory course of materials science and engineering; it is an important theoretical basis for the study of materials and the principles of the preparation and application. This course is mainly to provide the basic knowledge of materials science for the study of professional courses, and lay a solid theoretical foundation for further study, as well as the research and development of materials in the future.The goal of this course is to enable students to fully grasp the basic theory of materials science, understand the rules of the composition, structure, properties and processing of the materials,and understand and explain the various chemical, physical phenomena and properties of the materials, from the point of view of the composition, structure, performance and processing technology of the materials. This course helps to understand the history of materials, materials science research object and content, as well as the purpose and significance of the study of this course and requirements.

Topics and Schedule

1       The introduction of material science and Engineering

In this part we will discuss the important position of materials and material science,classification of materials,the relationship between material properties and internal structure,effect of preparation and processing technology on the properties of materials,recent advances and future trends in materials science and technology, material design and selection,the nature, task and content of the course of materials science and its role in materials science and engineering technology.

We will introduce the learning method of the course, the form of the teaching method and examination, and the main reference.

2       Atomic structure of materials


Understand structure of atoms and their bonding types,grasp the composition of the material, the structure of the atom, the electronic structure and the periodic table of elements, become familiar with the definition and characteristics of primary key (metal bond, ionic bond, covalent bond) and secondary bond (Vander Ed Ley and hydrogen bond),master the influence of the bond type on the properties of the material, the bond energy curve and its application.

Main contents:

2.1      The basic concepts of atomic structure, main quantum number, angular quantum number, magnetic quantum number, spin quantum number, atomic number, and atomic valence state and electro negativity. Basic principles such as the Lowest Energy Principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle,Nuclear Electronic Distribution law.Influence of atomic structure and atomic arrangement on the properties of materials.

2.2      The type and nature of the bond in the material, the influence of the bond on the properties of the material, the bond energy curve and its application.

2.3      The basic concept of the atomic stacking and coordination number and its influence on the properties of the materials.

2.4      The basic concept of microstructure and its influence on the properties of materials.

Key and difficult points:the type and nature of the bond, the influence of the bond on the properties of the materials, the bond energy curve and its applications.

3       Crystal structure of materials


Understand the characteristics of crystal,space lattice, unit cell, crystal system and Bravais lattice, representation method for crystal direction and crystallographic planes,crystal zone,zone law and inter-planar spacing,crystal symmetry, polar projection.

Understand three typical metal crystal structures,density and coordination number,lattice constant and atomic radius,the atomic stacking mode and the gap of the crystal,polymorphism.

Main contents:

3.1      The basic concepts of crystal and non crystal, crystal structure, space lattice, lattice, unit cell, lattice constant, Bravais lattice, crystal plane spacing and so on.

3.2      Calibration method of crystal orientation index and crystal face index,crystal band theorem, polar projection and crystal symmetry.

3.3      Crystal structure and type, common crystal structure (BCC, FCC, HCP) and their geometric characteristics, coordination number, packing factor (density), gap, dense surface and dense row direction.

3.4      The typical structure of ionic crystal type: diamond structure, graphite structure, NaCl structure, CsCl structure, ZnS structure, fluorite structure, rutile type structure, CdL2 structure, perovskite structure, spinel structure. Three methods to describe crystal structure and the concept of polymorphs and isomorphism.

The crystal structure characteristics of silicate and its classification: classification principle of crystal structure of silicate; island structure, group structure, chain structure, layered silicate crystal structure and frame structure.

3.5      The basic characteristics of the composition and structure of polymer materials.The crystalline form of polymer materials, the conformation of polymer chain in the crystal, the crystal structure model of polymer materials, the structure characteristics and classification of liquid crystal state.

Key and difficult points:

The 14 Bravais lattice,three typical metal crystal structures.Ionic crystal structure,crystal structure model of polymer materials and polar projection.

4       Diffusion in solids


Understand the Fick's first law, Fick's second law, solution of diffusion equation under typical conditions, familiar with diffusion theory of the atom, understand the diffusion mechanism and its influence factors.

Main contents:

4.1      The concept of diffusion and Kirkendall effect, the first law of diffusion, second law of diffusion.

4.2      Diffusion driving force and diffusion mechanism, reaction diffusion.

4.3      Diffusion in ionic crystals, diffusion mechanism in polymers.

4.4      Diffusion coefficient, diffusion activation energy, affecting factors and principles of diffusion: effects of crystal composition, chemical bond, and structural defects. Effects of temperature and impurities, etc.

Key and difficult points:

Diffusion mechanism and its influencing factors,Fick's second law.

5       Crystal defect


Become familiar with the concept of point defects, formation, balance concentration, point defect movement.Grasp the basic types, characteristics and movement characteristics of crystal defects.Grasp the definition, basic types and characteristics of dislocations.Definition, characteristics and representation ofBurgers Vector.Dislocation motion, generation and multiplication of dislocations, dislocation in the real crystal structure, stacking fault, incomplete dislocation, dislocation reaction.Understanding of crystal defects and strengthening principles of alloy materials.

Understanding of outer surface and surface energy, grain boundary and sub grain boundary (small angle grain boundary, large angle grain boundary structure, grain boundary energy, grain boundary characteristics, twin boundary).Definition, types and characteristics of the phase boundary.

Main contents:

5.1      The type of point defects,Schottky vacancy,Fraenkel vacancies, interstitial atoms, and replacement atoms.The basic concepts of interstitial solid solution and substitutional solid solution.The characteristics of point defects in ionic crystals, the equilibrium concentration of point defects, the influence factors and their influence on the properties of the materials.

5.2      Types of dislocation.Basic concepts of edge dislocations,screw dislocation,dislocation line and slip line.Basic concepts and physical significance of the Borges circuit and the Burgers Vector.

5.3      The relationship between the slip surface and the slip direction and the applied shear stress in the metal crystal.

5.4      Dislocations in ionic crystals, covalent crystals and polymers.

5.5      Basic concepts such as grain boundary, sub grain boundary, twin boundary, stacking fault and phase interface.

5.6      Basic concepts of grain size and measurements of grain size.

5.7      Basic concepts of body defects.

5.8      Strengthening methods and strengthen mechanisms of materials.

Key and difficult points:

Basic types, characteristics and motion characteristics of crystal defects;Crystal defect and strengthening principle of alloy materials.

6       Phase equilibrium and phase diagram


Master the phase equilibrium and phase rule,single-component system phase diagram.Master the homogeneous phase diagram, eutectic phase diagram, peritectic phase diagram and alloy solidification, the other types of the two phase diagram.Analysis method of complex two element phase diagram, presume the properties of alloysaccording to the phase diagram.Example analysis of two element phase diagram (microstructure and properties of iron carbon alloy). Become familiar with the representation method of three element phase diagram (component triangle). Space model of three element phase diagram,Cross section and projection of the three element phase diagram. Understanding of the solid state phase diagram of the three element eutectic.

Main contents:

6.1      Basic concepts of phase equilibrium and phase equilibrium diagram. Basic concepts ofphase rule.Fraction explanation of the phase equilibrium.

6.2      The establishment of phase diagram of two element alloy.The structure analysis of the even crystal,eutectic, peritectic,monotectic in the binary phase diagram.Eutectoid and peritectoid reaction.Equilibrium crystallization process analysis and cooling curve of two element phase diagram.Lever law and its application.

6.3      The analysis and application of the basic phase diagram, the relationship between the phase diagram and the properties.

6.4      Become familiar with the equilibrium crystallization process and the microstructure of the alloy at room temperature.Calculation of relative content of phase composition by using lever law.Be familiar with the basic concepts of ferrite, austenite, pearlite, austenite and martensite.

6.5      Phase equilibrium analysis, cooling curve analysis and cross section analysis of simple three element alloy.

Key and difficult points:

Basic concepts of phase equilibrium diagram.Law of lever.The basic types of the two element phase diagram,the analysis of the crystallization process of the typical alloy, the application of the lever law and the relationship between the phase diagram and the properties.

7       Amorphous materials and semi crystalline materials


Grasp the concept of amorphous materials and semi crystalline materials;Understanding the classification and main properties of polymers;Understanding the structure and properties of glass.

Main contents:

7.1      Chain structure and aggregation state structure of polymer.

7.2      Glass transition phenomenon and glass transition temperature, glass transition theory, the factors that affect the glass transition temperature.

7.3      High polymer crystallization ability, crystallization rate, factors affecting the crystallization rate.

7.4      Structure and properties of glassy polymers;The mechanical properties of the high elastic polymer, the characteristics of high elasticity, the dependence of the temperature on the rubber elasticity;The viscoelastic relaxation phenomena of polymers, the relationship between viscoelasticity and time and temperature.Concept and material properties of thermosetting and thermoplastic polymers.

7.5      The structure and properties of ionic glass, covalent glass and metallic glass, factors affecting glass forming ability.

Key and difficult points

The structural characteristics of polymer materials, the three state of polymer mechanics.

8       Solid-state phase transformation


Through the study of this chapter, students grasp the three basic changes (the changes of the crystal structure, the degree of order, chemical composition), master the diffusion type phase transition and the non diffusion phase transition.

Main contents:

8.1      Characteristics of solid phase transformation

8.2      Nucleation of solid phase transformation

8.3      Nucleation and growth of solid phase transformation

8.4      Samples of diffusion type phase transition

8.5      Non diffusive phase transition

Key and difficult points

   Understanding of solid state phase transition types;Master the difference between bainite transformation, pearlite transformation and martensite transformation; Characteristics ofmartensitic transformation.

9       Introduction to Materials Chemistry


Through the study of this chapter, students master the basic theory of material chemistry, get familiar with the principle and technology of preparation of chemical materials, learn new materials and new technology, understand the trends of the field of materials chemistry, lay a good foundation for future work.

Main contents:

9.1      Physical and chemical basis such as chemical thermodynamics, chemical reaction kinetics, surface and Interface Science.

9.2      The basic principles of the preparation of materials chemistry include the introduction of material design method, the characteristics of various materials, the preparation principle of solid state reaction, the preparation principle of liquid phase, the gas phase deposition and mechanical alloying.

Key and difficult points

Basic theory of material chemistry, classification, principle and technology of materials preparation

10    Introduction of functional materials


Through the study of this chapter, students master the nature and application of biological materials, ecological environmental materials, energy materials, intelligent materials, bio inspired materials and composite materials,lay an important foundation for the study of the following courses and graduation design.

Main contents:

10.1   Bio-functional materials

10.2   Ecological environmental materials

10.3   Energy materials

10.4   Intelligent materials

10.5   Bionic materials

10.6   Composite material

Key and difficult points

Classification and characteristics of functional materials; Preparation and detection methods of functional materials; Research methods of functional materials and its application fields.

11    Recent advances and future trends in materials science and technology


Through the study of this chapter, students will understand the latest development of materials science and technology and the future development trend, understand the definition, characteristics, main preparation methods and potential applications of nano materials.

Main contents:

11.1   Introduction of the nano materials

11.2   Nanostructure

11.3   Physical and chemical properties of nano materials

11.4   Application of nano materials

Key and difficult points

Classification, preparation methods and unique properties of nano materials. Nano structure characteristics, application fields and basic principles of nano materials.

12    Characterization techniques of materials


Through the study of this chapter, the students can understand the basic principles and be able to preliminary analysis of the results of characterization.

Main contents:

12.1   Ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy

12.2   X- ray diffraction technique

12.3   Transmission electron microscopy

12.4   X- ray photoelectron spectroscopy

12.5   Instrument features and sub test error analysis

Key and difficult points

Function, advantages and defects of characterization equipment.Basic principles and practical scope of equipment.


Pan Jinsheng etc. Foundation of Materials Science. tsinghua university press, 1998

William F. Smith, Javad Hashemi, Foundations of Materials Science and Engineering,Machinery Industry Press2010.


[1]   Shi Deke, material science foundation, mechanical industry press, 1999

[2]   Liu Zhien, foundation of materials science, Northwestern Polytechnical University press, 2000

[3]   Qin Shan, crystallography foundation, Peking University press, 2004